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Figure note: Data for each country is sourced from a different study (see References). Each study utilizes slightly different methods and systems for categorizing sub-sectors. We have attempted to match sub-sectors as accurately as possible, nevertheless certain sub-sector groupings were difficult to align. If you are interested in a specific country's data, we recommend reviewing the original data source. Furthermore, because individual studies take different methodological approaches, we recommend using a multi-regional analysis, such as Lenzen et al., 2020, if you are interested in comparing the climate impact of different countries (see our chart: Per capita climate impact of health systems).

*, Other healthcare institutions includes nursing and residential care services, ambulatory healthcare services provided by non-profit institutions, and medical medical, dental, and personal safety supplies, instruments, and equipment; †, sub-sector contributions were taken from 2010 (Austria) and 2011 (Japan), but appear to be constant over time; ‡, analysis only includes carbon dioxide emissions, with other greenhouse gases excluded; §, per capita climate impacts were not reported and have instead been calculated on the basis of national population estimates during the year of data collection.

Suggested citation: HealthcareLCA (2023). Health system hotspots: The contribution of healthcare sub-sectors to per capita health-related greenhouse gas emissions for select countries [Figure]. Published online at Retrieved from: ''.


Eckelman, M. J., & Sherman, J. (2016). Environmental impacts of the US health care system and effects on public health. PloS one, 11(6), e0157014.

Eckelman, M. J., Sherman, J. D., & MacNeill, A. J. (2018). Life cycle environmental emissions and health damages from the Canadian healthcare system: an economic-environmental-epidemiological analysis. PLoS medicine, 15(7), e1002623.

Malik, A., Lenzen, M., McAlister, S., & McGain, F. (2018). The carbon footprint of Australian health care. The Lancet Planetary Health, 2(1), e27-e35.

Nansai, K., Fry, J., Malik, A., Takayanagi, W., & Kondo, N. (2020). Carbon footprint of Japanese health care services from 2011 to 2015. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 152, 104525.

Weisz U, Pichler PP, Jaccard IS, Haas W, Matej S, Bachner F, Nowak P, Weisz H. Carbon emission trends and sustainability options in Austrian health care. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 2020 Sep 1;160:104862.

Wu, R. (2019). The carbon footprint of the Chinese health-care system: an environmentally extended input–output and structural path analysis study. The Lancet Planetary Health, 3(10), e413-e419.

Publication date: January 18, 2021

Last updated: March 23, 2023

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Health system hotspots: The contribution of healthcare sub-sectors to per capita health-related greenhouse gas emissions for select countries

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