Figure note: Data for each country is sourced from a different study (see References). Each study utilizes slightly different methods and systems for categorizing sub-sectors. We have attempted to match sub-sectors as accurately as possible, nevertheless certain sub-sector groupings were difficult to align. If you are interested in a specific country's data, we recommend reviewing the original data source. Furthermore, because individual studies take different methodological approaches, we recommend using a multi-regional analysis, such as Lenzen et al., 2020, if you are interested in comparing the climate impact of different countries (see our chart: Per capita climate impact of health systems).
*, Other healthcare institutions includes nursing and residential care services, ambulatory healthcare services provided by non-profit institutions, and medical medical, dental, and personal safety supplies, instruments, and equipment; †, sub-sector contributions were taken from 2010 (Austria) and 2011 (Japan), but appear to be constant over time; ‡, analysis only includes carbon dioxide emissions, with other greenhouse gases excluded; §, per capita climate impacts were not reported and have instead been calculated on the basis of national population estimates during the year of data collection.
Suggested citation: HealthcareLCA (2023). Health system hotspots: The contribution of healthcare sub-sectors to per capita health-related greenhouse gas emissions for select countries [Figure]. Published online at HealthcareLCA.com. Retrieved from: 'healthcarelca.com/health-system-hotspots-the-contribution-of-healthcare-sub-sectors-to-per-capita-health-related-greenhouse-gas-emissions-for-select-countries'.
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Malik, A., Lenzen, M., McAlister, S., & McGain, F. (2018). The carbon footprint of Australian health care. The Lancet Planetary Health, 2(1), e27-e35.
Nansai, K., Fry, J., Malik, A., Takayanagi, W., & Kondo, N. (2020). Carbon footprint of Japanese health care services from 2011 to 2015. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 152, 104525.
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Publication date: January 18, 2021
Last updated: March 23, 2023
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Health system hotspots: The contribution of healthcare sub-sectors to per capita health-related greenhouse gas emissions for select countries