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Figure note: data sourced from Lenzen et al., 2020; y-axis units are indicated within the legend; CO₂e, carbon dioxide equivalents; NOx, nitrogen oxides; SO₂, sulfur dioxide; Gt, gigatons. Mt, megatons; TL, teralitres; data labels on the right-hand side of the chart indicate the change in impact for each parameter between 2000-2015 (multiplier).

Suggested citation: HealthcareLCA (2023). Trends in environmental impacts of global healthcare for six parameters: 2000-2015 [Figure] Published online at Retrieved from: ''


Lenzen M, Malik A, Li M, Fry J, Weisz H, Pichler PP, Chaves LS, Capon A, Pencheon D. The environmental footprint of health care: a global assessment. The Lancet Planetary Health. 2020 Jul 1;4(7):e271-9.

First published: January 5, 2021

Last updated: March 23, 2023

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Trends in environmental impact contributions from global healthcare for seven parameters: 2000-2015

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